Bk7 is an extremely common crown glass, used in precision lenses. borosilicates contain about 10% boric oxide, have good optical and mechanical characteristics, and are resistant to chemical and environmental damage.
Borofloat 33 Glass
Glass from Germany. It is the world’s first floated borosilicate flat glass. borofloat 33 combines superior quality and excellent flatness with outstanding thermal, optical, chemical and mechanical features.
Grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy [HVPE]. Free-Standing GaN offers low defect density and less />free macro-defect density.
A glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form. Fused Silica differentiates itself from traditional glasses in containing no other ingredients.
Compounded from the elements Gallium and Arsenic. Gallium Arsenide [GaAs] is used in the manufacture of devices such as microwaves, integrated circuits, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, infrered lieght-emitting diodes, laser diodes, solar cells and optical windows.
Germanium [ge] is popularly used as a semiconductor material due to its excellent crystallographic properties and superb electrical properties.
Manufactured by the Corning company, Gorilla Glass is designed to be thin, toughened glass which is light and damage resistant.
Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon atoms. Graphene is an allotrope of carbon in the form of a two-dimensional, atomic-scale, hexagonal lattice in which one atom forms each vertex. it is the basic structural element of other allotropes, including graphite, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. it can also be considered as an indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the limiting case of the family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Indium Phosphide [inp] is a binary semiconductor composed of indium and phosphorus. it has a face-centered cubic ("zincblende") crystal structure, identical to that of gaas and most of the iii-v semiconductors.
Indium Tin Oxide [ito] is one of the most widely used transparent conducting oxides because of its two chief properties, its electrical conductivity and optical transparency, as well as the ease with which it can be deposited as a thin film. as with all transparent conducting films, a compromise must be made between conductivity and transparency, since increasing the thickness and increasing the concentration of charge carriers will increase the material's conductivity, but decrease its transparency.
Nitride on Silicon
Silicon Nitride is a chemical compound of the elements silicon and nitrogen, with the formula si3n4. it is a white, high-melting-point solid that is relatively chemically inert, being attacked by dilute hf and hot h2so4. it is the most thermodynamically stable of the silicon nitrides. hence, si3n4 is the most commercially important of the silicon nitrides and is generally understood as what is being referred to where the term "silicon nitride" is used.
Sapphire is a single crystal form of Al2O3, also known as alpha-alumina, alumina and single crystal Al2O3. Sapphire is aluminium oxide in the purest form with no porosity or grain boundaries. this makes the material theoretically dense. sapphire displays impressive chemical, electrical, mechanical, optical, surface, thermal, and durability properties make sapphire a preferred material for high performance system and component designs.
Silicon Carbide [SiC], also known as carborundum, is a compound of silicon and carbon with chemical formula sic. it occurs in nature as the extremely rare mineral moissanite.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol si and atomic number 14. it is a tetravalent metalloid, more reactive than germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table. controversy about silicon's character dates to its discovery; it was first prepared and characterized in pure form in 1823.
Soda-Lime Glass , also called soda-lime-silica glass, is the most prevalent type of glass, used for windowpanes, and glass containers (bottles and jars) for beverages, food, and some commodity items.
Silicon on Insulator [soi] technology refers to the use of a layered silicon-insulator-silicon substrate in place of conventional silicon substrates in semiconductor manufacturing, especially microelectronics, to reduce parasitic device capacitance, thereby improving performance.
When used for Solar cells, wafers are textured to create a rough surface to increase their efficiency.
In microfabrication, thermal oxidation is a way to produce a thin layer of oxide (usually silicon dioxide) on the surface of a wafer. The technique forces an oxidizing agent to diffuse into the wafer at high temperature and react with it. The rate of oxide growth is often predicted by the Deal-Grove model. thermal oxidation may be applied to different materials, but this article will only consider oxidation of silicon substrates to produce silicon dioxide.